Uzależnienie: od podejścia tradycyjnego do nowych form uzależnień. Spojrzenie koncepcyjne i psycho-pedagogiczne

  • Zbigniew Szczepan Formella Università Pontificia Salesiana
  • Sofia Massei
  • Letizia Cavalli
Słowa kluczowe: uzależnienie, nowe uzależnienia, technologia

Abstrakt

Współcześnie wiele raportów naukowych ukazuje wzrost zjawiska uzależnienia w Europie i USA, podkreślając potrzebę radzenia sobie z tą sytuacją. Artykuł zaczyna się od opisu uzależnienia w głównych podręcznikach diagnostycznych (DSM-5, ICD-10) oraz z perspektywy kilku uznanych ekspertów. Następnie analizuje jego występowanie we Włoszech, szczególnie w odniesieniu do nastolatków. Zjawisko uzależnienia jest opisywane  zarówno z punktu widzenia klinicznego, jak i behawioralnego. Na przykład we Włoszech jest 35 milionów ludzi, którzy codziennie korzystają z platform społecznościach przez około 6 godzin, co wpływa na ich zachowania i relacje społeczne. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie współczesnego obrazu uzależnień, co jest jednocześnie wstępem do prowadzonych badań nad zjawiskiem uzależnienia od smartfonu. Konieczne są dalsze szczegółowe badania w celu określenia konkretnych sposobów zapobiegania tym problemom i ich leczenia.

Bibliografia

Aker, Severt et al. 2017. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 28(4), 215-219.

Albrecht, Ulrike, Nina Ellen Kirschner i Sabine M. Grüsser. 2007. Diagnostic instruments for behavioural addiction: an overview. Psychosocial Medicine, 4, 1-11.

Alemis, Melisa C. i Keong Yap. 2013. The role of negative urgency impulsicity and financial management practices in compulsive buying. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65(4), 224-231.

American Psychiatric Association (APA). 2014. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali. Quinta edizione. DSM-5, red. Mario Biondi. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Bandura, Albert. 1969. Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bandura, Albert. 1977. Social Learning Theory. Los Angeles: Prentice Hall.

Baroncini, Paolo i Alessandro Dionigi. 2010. Vecchie e nuove dipendenze. Manuale multidisciplinare. Bologna: CLUEB.

Bateson, Gregory. 1984. Mente e natura. Milano: Adelphi.

Beard, Keith W. i Eve M. Wolf. 2001. Modification in the Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 377-383.

Beck, Aaron Temkin. 1967. Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper and Row.

Boni, Silvia. 2017. Le nuove dipendenze comportamentali. I profili dell’abuso: profiling. Focus Minori, 3 (12), 1-17. Dostęp: 17.07.2019. http://eprints.bice.rm.cnr.it/17151/1/Le%20nuove%20dipendenze%20comportamentali%20-%20Boni%202017.pdf.

Bowlby, John. 1989. Una base sicura. Milano: Raffaelo Cortina Editore.

Burwell, Caryl et al. 2018. Social networking site use and depressive symptoms: does facebook activity lead to adverse psychological health? Linguistic and Philosophical investigations, 17, 141-158.

Cancrini, Luigi. 1980. Tossicomanie. Roma: Editori Riuniti.

Cantelmi, Tonino i Emiliano Lambiase. 2015. Schiavi del sesso. Sesso patologico, eccessi, dipendenza e tecnosex. Milano: Alpes.

Chóliz, Mariano, Enrique Echeburúa i Francisco J. Labrador. 2012. Technological Addictions: Are These the New Addictions? Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 290-291.

Conte, Stella i Carla Ghiani. 2019. La dipendenza da smartphone. Psicologia e scuola, 4, 26-29.

Couyoumdjian, Alessandro, Roberto Baiocco i Carlamaria Del Miglio. 2011. Adolescenti e nuove dipendenze. Le basi teoriche, i fattori di rischio, la prevenzione. Roma: Editori Laterza.

Davis, Richard A. 2001. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use (PIU). Computers in Human Behavior, 17(2), 187-195.

Della Dora, Luca. 2016. Digital in 2016: in Italia e nel mondo. Dostęp: 19.05.2019. https://wearesocial.com/it/blog/2016/01/report-digital-social-mobile-in-2016.

De Leuca, Anna Maria. 2018. Dipendenze, i giovani consumano alcol, fumo e giocano d’azzardo in percentuali preoccupanti. La Repubblica, 12 gennaio. Dostęp: 22.07.2019. https://www.repubblica.it/solidarieta/volontariato/2018/01/12/news/dipendenze-186357726/.

Di Gregorio, Luciano. 2003. Psicopatologia del cellulare. Dipendenza e possesso del telefonino. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Dusi, Elena. 2007. Sesso, droga e videogiochi e il cervello diventa schiavo. La Repubblica, 1 settembre. Dostęp: 19.06.2019. https://www.repubblica.it/2007/09/sezioni/scienza_e_tecnologia/cervello-schiavo/cervello-schiavo/cervello-schiavo.html.

Ferree, Marnie C. 2003. Women and the web: cybersex activity and implication. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 385-393.

Formella, Zbigniew i Marco Nicoli. 2014. La dipendenza da internet tra gli adolescenti. Una ricerca sul territorio romano. Seminare, 2(35), 113-124.

Freud, Sigmund. 1915. Pulsioni e loro destini. Opere, 8. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Gambini, Paolo. 2006. Introduzione alla Psicologia. Volume secondo: i processi cognitivi. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Grant, John E. et al. 2010. Introduction to behavioral addictions. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 233-241. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2010.491884.

Griffiths, Mark D. 1995. Technological addictions. Clinical Psychology Forum, 76, 14-19.

Griffiths, Mark D. 2012. Internet sex addiction: A review of empirical research. Addiction Reasearch & Theory, 20(2), 111- 124. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2011.588351.

Griffiths, Mark D. 2011. Workaholism: A 21st century addiction. The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 24, 740-744.

Guerreschi, Cesare. 2005. New addictions. Le nuove dipendenze. Roma: San Paolo Edizioni.

Guerreschi, Cesare. 2006. Il gioco d’azzardo e gli adolescenti. San Lazzaro di Savena: Campomarzo Editrice.

ICD-10. 1994. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organisation: Geneva.

Kawabe, Kentaro et al. 2016. Interne addiction: prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 70, 405-412. doi:10.1111/pcn.12402.

La Rose, Robert, Carolyn A. Lin i Metthew S. Eastin. 2003. Unregulated Internet Usage: Addiction, Habit or Deficient Self-Regulation? Media Psychology, 5(3), 225-253.

Lambiase, Emiliano. 2001. La dipendenza sessuale. Nuovi modelli clinici e proposte di intervento terapeutico. Roma: LAS.

Lašek, Jan, Petra Kalibová i Jana Andršová. 2016. Adolescents and information and communication technologies: use and a risk of addiction. The New Educational Review, 10(44), 72-83. doi:10.15804/tner.2016.44.2.06.

Lavenia, Giuseppe. 2012. Internet e le sue dipendenze. Dal coinvolgimento alla psicopatologia. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Lavenia, Giuseppe. 2018. Le dipendenze tecnologiche. Valutazione, diagnosi e cura. Firenze: Giunti.

Lin Y.H. et al. 2017. To use or not to use? Compulsive behavior and its role in smartphone addiction. Translational Psychiatry, 1-6.

Maddux, James F. i David P. Desmond. 2000. Addiction or dependence? Addiction, 95(5), 661-665. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.9556611.x.

Mazzucchelli, Luca. 2019. Fattore 1%. Piccole abitudini per grandi risultati. Firenze: Giunti.

McElroy, Susan L. et al. 1994. Compulsive buying: A report of 20 cases. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55(6), 242-248.

Monacis, Lucia et al. 2017. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. Journal of Behavioral Addiction, 6(2), 178-186. doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.023.

Oates, Wayne E. 1971. Confessions of a workaholic: the facts about work addiction. New York: World Pub. Co.

Panova, Tayana i Xavier Carbonell. 2018. Is smartphone addiction really an addiction? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(2), 252-259. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.49.

Pearcy, Benjamin T.D., Lynne D.Roberts i Peter M. McEvoy. 2016. Psychometric Testing of the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9: A New Measure Designed to Assess Internet Gaming Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 19(5), 335-341. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0534.

Portelli, Claudette i Matteo Papantuono. 2017. Le nuove dipendenze. Riconoscerle, capirle e superarle. Milano: Edizioni San Paolo.

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri – Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga. 2017. Relazione annuale al Parlamento sullo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia 2017. Dostęp: 15.07.2019. http://old.iss.it/binary/drog4/cont/RELAZIONE_AL_PARLAMENTO_STATO_TOSSICODIPENDENZE_2017.pdf.

Rigliano, Paolo. 1998. Indipendenze. Alcol e cibo, farmaci e droghe, comportamenti di rischio e d’azzardo: le relazioni di dipendenza. Torino: Edizioni Gruppo Abele.

Rohrlich, Jay B. 1981. The dynamics of work addiction. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 18(2), 147-156. doi: 10.1163/9789401206716_012.

Saliceti, Francesca. 2015. New Addictions. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191(2), 1639-1643. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.291.

Spitzer, Manfred. 2016. Solitudine digitale. Disadattati, isolati, capaci solo di una vita virtuale? Milano: Corbaccio.

Starri, Matteo. 2019. Digital 2019: tre italiani su cinque attivi sui social per quasi due ore al giorno. Dostęp: 20.05.2019. https://wearesocial.com/it/blog/2019/01/digital-in-2019.

Suler, John i Wende L. Phillips. 1998. The Bad Boys of Cyberspace: Deviant Behavior in a Multimedia Chat Community. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 275-294.

Thomas, W. H. Ng, Kelly L. Sorensen i Daniel C. Feldman. 2007. Dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of workaholism: A conceptual integration and extension. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(1), 111-136.

Tonioni, Federico. 2013. Psicopatologia web-mediata. Dipendenza da internet e nuovi fenomeno dissociativi. Milano: Springer.

Valentini, Martina i Massimo Biondi. 2016. L’emergere delle dipendenze comportamentali. Rivista di Psichiatria, 51(3), 85-86. doi: 10.1708/2304.24788.

Vygotskij, Lev Semënovič. 1976. Pensiero e linguaggio. Firenze: Giunti Barbera.

Weinstein, Aviv et al. 2016. Compulsive buying-features and characteristics of addiction. W: Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 3: General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions, red. Victor R. Predy, 993-1007. London: King’s College London.

Whelan, James P., Timothy A. Steenbergh i Andrew W. Meyers. 2010. Gambling. Gioco d’azzardo problematico e patologico. Firenze: Giunti O.S.

Wolak, Janis, David Finkelhor i Kimberly J. Mitchell. 2012. How often are teens arrested for sexting? Data from a national sample of police cases. Pediatrics, 129(1), 4-12. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2242.

Young, Kimberly S. 1996. Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsycholgy Behavior, 3(1), 237-244.

Young, Kimberly S. 2001. Tangled in the Web: understanding cybersex from fantasy to addiction. New York: AuthorHouse.

Young, Kimberly S. et al. 2000. Cyber-disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium. Cyberpsycholgy Behavior, 2(5), 475-479.

Young, Kimberly S. 1999. Internet Addiction: Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment. Innovations in Clinical Practice, 17, 19-31.

Opublikowane
2020-07-02
Dział
Z problematyki społeczno-pedagogicznej